Wind power systems for heat production, storage and supply of agro-industrial objects: Functioning of agro-industrial complex

Agriculture (farming or husbandry) is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. The agricultural sector (agriculture and food manufacturing industry) ensures food security and food independence of the country, generates 17 percent of gross domestic product (an aggregate of all gross domestic products) and about 60 percent of the population consumption fund. For comparison, agriculture sector produces less than 5 percent of the gross world product. In addition, the agricultural sector is one of the main budget formative sectors of the national economy, the share of which in the aggregate budget of Ukraine for the last years is 8 …9 percent, and also takes the second place among the sectors of the economy in commodity structure of exports.

Agriculture contributes to the development of other industries, which supply means of production and consume the products of agriculture as a raw material, as well as provide transportation, shopping and other services. The special role of the agricultural sector in socio-economic life of the country caused by a unique combination of favorable climatic conditions and geostrategic location, capability of Ukraine to take a strong position in the international food market.

The main purpose of the State targeted program of Ukrainian village development on period up to 2015, approved by the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine dated September 19, 2007, №1158, is to ensure the viability of agriculture, its competitiveness on the domestic and external markets, guaranteeing food security for the country, saving of the Ukrainian peasantry as media of Ukrainian identity, culture and spirituality.

The development of the agricultural sector is subject to the reformation by the next ways: stimulation of entrepreneurship in agriculture; implementation of measures to promote the creation of new enterprises of light, food and other industries, service organizations; ensure comprehensive development of engineering infrastructure in the rural areas through the construction and reconstruction of electrical networks; development and implementation of programs for construction and the development of gas pipe line of high and medium pressure; ensure permanent control over the natural environment in settlements and places of waste storage, improving the regulatory framework for waste management.

Key agriculture branches subject to the primary reformation are the plant cultivation (crop production of cereals, leguminous plants, technical and fodder crops), dairy stockbreeding, and pig farming. These areas stimulate changes in agriculture of Ukraine and require priority attention (fig. 4.34).

The concept of the State economic program of the implementation in the agriculture sectors of the newest technologies for agricultural products making during the period to 2016, approved by the Decree of the Cabinet \of Ukraine on December 23, 2009 N 1650-2003 provides complex development of plant cultivation and livestock farming.

Crop production. Crop production development is carried out through the rational allocation of agriculture production depending on the quality of agricultural soils; implementation of environmental measures, including land and forest reclamations and erosion-preventive measures; restoration of reclaimed land. The average crop yield in Ukraine are lower in comparison to that received in other countries in the worst climatic conditions, but with the employment of modern resources-saving technologies. High energy- and resource capacity leads to low economic efficiency.

Grain storage. In Ukraine there is a shortage of capacity for high-quality grain storage. This is especially felt in the harvest years, when this deficit reaches 30 …40%. Grain storage infrastructure in Ukraine consists mainly of large elevators and granaries. In the conditions of capacity shortage the holders form high prices, which lead to a significant growth of grain cost during storage. A significant limitation for grain export growth is a lack of specialized infrastructure capacities (grain elevators and terminals) and specialized tools for transportation by the water (sea and river) and railway transport. In order to save grain quality, reduce losses, improve product quality and in the country, it is necessary to create directly in farms the small and medium capacity elevators, depending on the needs and capabilities of the enterprises.

 

The development of animal husbandry. To resolve the problems of livestock development it is necessary to implement the following measures:

 

·        to ensure a significant growth in the number of high-performance dairy cows in agricultural enterprises and farms, and bring it in 2015 to 1.7 ...1.9 million by their own renovation and purchase of repair heifers outside Ukraine;

·        to ensure the growth of meat production by the development of meat livestock, poultry and pig farming in agricultural enterprises and large farms;

·        stimulate the development of meat pastoralism (livestock) in favorable regions;

·        promote competitive production of meat by supporting the formation of mechanized farms and cattle-breeding complexes with high productive cattle population and with proper fodder crops base;

·        to promote the concentration of livestock production in personal peasant farms by forming cooperative complexes in order to obtain high-quality raw materials and safe livestock products for human health, expansion of storage infrastructure, increase of livestock products by 1.5 times.

For the stabilization and development of livestock as a competitive industry is envisaged to exchange them for the sold population of cattle, pigs and poultry, as well as for  milk and wool, for the existing and increased pedigree population of farm animals; promote the development of non-conventional renewable energy equipment and alternative types of liquid and gas fuel, biodiesel and ethanol fuell; creation of the row of cooperative grain elevators, including port elevators, with the participation of grain traders and state on the basis of associate membership.

Creation of dairy farms is the most complicated project, which needs in big investment and has long them of investment return in comparison with other branches of livestock. Agriculture production development program plans to give the subsidiaries for the development of projects of construction of dairy farms and simplifying procedures for the selection of land plots for construction of cattle-breeding farms.

 

Saving and restoring soil fertility. Ecological agricultural production technology provides recovery of natural balance, which is especially important because erosion of soils is a fairly complex problem for farmers and environmentalists.

The important direction of development of agrarian sector is improvement of fertility and its rational use, improvement of soil structure, reduction of erosion, the revival of the ecosystems, the reduction of CO2 emissions, and bounding of the carbon in the soil (≈ 1,8 tone/hectare).

State policy is intended to saving of land, soil fertility and ecological safety of rural areas by implementing measures in accordance with the complex organization of the projects, which include: prevention of erosive processes and ground fertility recover; implementation of state control for the protection and reproduction of soil fertility; formation of ecosystems as an effective mechanism of biodiversity conservation of the landscape; evaluation of potential risks and damage caused to land resources as a result of natural and man-made emergency situations.

In order to increase the level of potential opportunities use of the reclaimed land it is necessary to provide effective functioning of the reclaimed system; to create conditions for the farms that hold activities in irrigation farming; create a system of regulation of water-air regime of soils in the conditions of drainage. For 2015 it is expected to gradually recover and reconstruct the irrigation and drainage systems on the areas respectively 2 and 2,3 million hectares.

 

Ecology of agricultural production. Taking into account the fact that the domestic farming industry is decisive in ensuring the population by food, the environmental issues are of the primary importance. It is envisaging: to accomplish the organizational-legal and economic measures for the implementation of resources-saving, safe and environmentally friendly technologies for the making of agricultural products and products of its processing; to implement mechanisms for the development of ecological agriculture, to create conditions for the recovery of soil, water and other natural resources; to promote pricing taking into account the ecological compatibility of the products; to create a system of continuous audit for the compliance with the technological and environmental requirements and management standards.

Agriculture of Ukraine has one of the best assurance in natural and climatic renewable resources in the world. The State does not fully able to attract financial resources according to the Kyoto Protocol (including into agriculture, where there is a great opportunity for the implementation of technologies that reduce emissions of greenhouse gases). Basis for the competitiveness of the agricultural sector should be the R&D intensive and intellectual production. The lower are energy intensity and resource-demanding of agricultural production technologies, the higher is sustainability of the agricultural industry.

The main power-consuming objects of agro-industrial complex that need in reformation of their energy supply are the dairy farms, pig farms, poultry farms, greenhouse farming, granaries (elevators), vegetable storage buildings, systems of water supply and irrigation of farmland, systems for prevention of agricultural land flooding by underground waters. 

At present, the heating of agro-industrial objects is done by the only heat boiler stations working on burning of fossil fuel. Major disabilities that restrict the development of these systems for heat supply are the use of non-renewable fossil fuel, greenhouse emissions and environmental pollution, low energy efficiency of heat supply systems, the high cost of fossil fuel, and high losses during transport of thermal energy.

 

 

By Vasil Sidorov on October 15, 2012

Technopark QUELTA, Queltanews from

Nizhyn Laboratories of Scanning Devices

sidorovvasil@gmail.com

 


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